Fiziol. rast. genet. 2023, vol. 55, no. 3, 251-264, doi:

Study of complex adaptation characteristics to water deficit conditions of genetically modified Triticum aestivum L. plants with partial suppression of the proline catabolism gene

Mykhalska S.I., Komisarenko A.G., Mykhalskyi L.O.

  • Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine 31/17 Vasylkivska St., Kyiv, 03022, Ukraine

A comprehensive analysis of the seed generation of transgenic plants (T2) of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with introduced elements forming a double-stranded RNA suppressor of the proline dehydrogenase gene (pdh, PDH) proved their increased tolerance to water deficit and sulfate-chloride salinity. Genetically modified plants with a double-stranded RNA suppressor of the proline dehydrogenase gene, in comparison with the original genotypes, were characterized by reduced enzyme activity and an increased level of free proline (Pro). At the same time, the regularities of its accumulation/expenditure both under normal growing conditions and under the effects of osmotic stress were revealed. It was shown that on the 10th day of dehydration, the content of Pro in genetically modified plants increased and was maintained in the first hours after rehydration, which could contribute to the maintenance of carbohydrate balance, which in control plants was significantly reduced during dehydration and normalized during rehydration. In T2-plants, this index almost did not change regardless of cultivation conditions. Dynamic changes in the leaves protein content under normal ® stress ® normal conditions were established. Under optimal conditions, its amount in T2-plants and their original genotypes did not differ significantly, while under the influence of water stress, an increase in protein content was recorded in control plants, which may indicate the synthesis of stress response proteins. It was shown that under the conditions of sufficient water supply, the content of the main photosynthetic pigment — chlorophyll in the flag leaves of plants of the original genotypes and their transgenic lines fluctuated within close limits. Drought reduced the amount of total chlorophyll in the flag leaves of all studied plants, and the difference between the original genotype and the transgenic variants was in favor of the genetically modified forms. A comparative analysis of morphometric indices in the stage of full maturity showed that T2-plants after water stress prevailed over the original forms in terms of the height of the main stem and the length of its ear.

Keywords: Triticum aestivum L., transgenic plants, proline catabolism gene, water deficit, proline, photosynthetic pigments, carbohydrates, morphometric parameters

Fiziol. rast. genet.
2023, vol. 55, no. 3, 251-264

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