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Физиология растений и генетика 2020, том 52, № 2, 95-127, doi: https://doi.org/10.15407/frg2020.02.095

Кольорове зерно пшениці і ячменю — нова стратегія селекції зернових культур із високою біологічною цінністю зерна

Рибалка О.І.1,2, Моргун В.В.2, Моргун Б.В.2,3

  1. Селекційно-генетичний інститут—Національний центр насіннєзнавства та сортовивчення Національної академії аграрних наук України 65036 Одеса, Овідіопольська дорога, 3
  2. Інститут фізіології рослин і генетики Національної академії наук України 03022 Київ, вул. Васильківська, 31/17
  3. Інститут клітинної біології та генетичної інженерії Національної академії наук України 03680 Київ, вул. Академіка Заболотного, 148

Науково обґрунтовано новий для України напрям селекції пшениці і голозерного ячменю з кольоровим (чорним, фіолетовим, синім) зерном з метою підвищення (біофортифікації) харчової (біологічної) цінності зерна цих культур. Зернові злаки є основою харчування населення світу. Стратегію біофортифікації зернових злаків сьогодні називають «другою зеленою революцією». Чорний, синій і фіолетовий колір зерна злаків зумовлюють пігменти антоціаніни і фітомеланіни, що належать до рослинних флавоноїдів, які є часткою ще більшої групи фітохімічних компонентів зерна — фенольних сполук. Антоціаніни кольорових плодів фруктів, овочів, бобових культур і кольорових зернових злаків забезпечують харчову профілактику людини до цілої низки тяжких захворювань — серцево-судинних патологій, цукрового діабету, різних форм раку, тому такі продукти стають дедалі популярнішими і вживанішими у їжу серед населення розвинутих країн. Наведено багато прикладів біохімічних, фізіологічних і клінічних досліджень пшениці та ячменю, виконаних у провідних лабораторіях світу, які доводять високу біологічну цінність кольорового зерна цих культур. Автори статті вперше в Україні створили і довели до Державного реєстру сорти чорнозерної пшениці з високою біологічною цінністю зерна і започаткували новий для України напрям селекції сортів кольорової пшениці та голо­зерного ячменю, які стануть основою для створення нових продуктів функціонального харчування на продовольчому ринку України. За прикладом розвинутих країн світу запропоновано розробити в Україні національну стратегію здорового (функціонального) харчування, спрямовану на максимальне (не менш як 50 %) підвищення в харчовому раціоні населення України частки продуктів із цільного зерна злаків.

Ключові слова: кольорове зерно, пшениця, ячмінь, селекція, біофортифікація, антоціаніни, антиоксиданти, функціональні харчові продукти

Физиология растений и генетика
2020, том 52, № 2, 95-127

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