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Физиология растений и генетика 2018, том 50, № 4, 279-298, doi: https://doi.org/10.15407/frg2018.04.279

GPC-B1 (NAM-B1) ГЕН ЯК НОВИЙ ГЕНЕТИЧНИЙ РЕСУРС У СЕЛЕКЦІЇ ПШЕНИЦІ НА ПІДВИЩЕННЯ ВМІСТУ БІЛКА В ЗЕРНІ ТА МІКРОЕЛЕМЕНТІВ

Рибалка О.I.1,2, Моргун Б.В.2,3, Поліщук С.С.1

  1. Селекційно-генетичний інститут—Національний центр насіннєзнавства та сортовивчення Національної академії аграрних наук України 65036 Одеса, Овідіопольська дорога, 3
  2. Iнститут фізіології рослин і генетики Національної академії наук України 03022 Київ, вул. Васильківська, 31/17
  3. Iнститут клітинної біології та генетичної інженерії Національної академії наук України 03680 Київ, вул. Академіка Заболотного, 148 e-mail: molgen@icbge.org.ua

Підвищення вмісту білка в зерні пшениці залишається одним із стратегічних завдань сучасної селекції. Однак вміст білка в зерні є складною полігенно детермінованою ознакою, значною мірою залежною від агрокліматичних умов вирощування і, як наслідок, складно контрольованою і керованою в процесі селекції. У дикорослої пшениці двозернянки T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides із національних фондів зародкової плазми Iзраїлю у хромосомі 6В іден­тифіковано ген дикого типу Gpc-B1 (grain protein concentration), який значно підвищує вміст протеїну в зерні і водночас кількох ключових мікроелементів унаслідок пришвидшення фізіологічного старіння рослин та ефективнішої ремобілізації азоту з вегетативних органів у зерно. Ген Gpc-B1 чинить мінорні негативні ефекти на деякі структурні елементи врожаю (маса зернівки і натура), не знижуючи при цьому врожаю зерна per ce. Ген Gpc-B1 клонований і детально досліджений як за молекулярною структурою, так і за функціональністю. У процесі серії експериментів, виконаних у різних країнах світу на різному генетичному фоні та за контрастних умов вирощування, доведено високу ефективність використання гена Gpc-B1 у селекційних програмах з метою підвищення вмісту білка і ключових мікроелементів у зерні, поліпшення його технологічної і споживчої цінності.

Ключові слова: пшениця, вміст білка, мінералів, хромосома 6В, ген Gpc-B1 (NAM-B1), фізіологічне старіння, ремобілізація азоту, T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides.

Физиология растений и генетика
2018, том 50, № 4, 279-298

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