In Ukraine today bread wheat Triticum aestivum L. is presented just with one class only — hard red bread wheat (Hard Red Wheat) that doesn’t correspond to industrial technology requirements for variety of wheat flour products and their consuming quality each one of those requires particular wheat grain quality. Triticale crop in Ukraine have no clearly defined technological end-use. Particular importance in wheat quality plays grain hardness that is the main wheat grain quality class determinant. For development of new wheat grain quality classes we use in our breeding program the following wide genetic resources: interspecific crosses of cultivated wheat with hexaploid amphiploid-synthetics, genes for grain hardness and caryopsis color determination, genes regulating of grain protein content and protein quality, physical, biochemical, rheology of starch and dough, flour bread-making properties. In the studies of experimental material of wheat and triticale with different grain hardness high positive correlation between grain hardness and minimally processed grouts extraction was found. Within white grain wheat samples group several advanced breeding lines with extra-hard (+40 Inframatic 8611 units) and extra-soft (up to —58) grain hardness were isolated. The best flakes quality from extra-soft textured white grain wheat and soft/extra-soft textured triticale breeding lines were processed. The best quality grouts produced wheat breeding material with high grain hardness. Winter triticale breeding lines showed soft and extra-soft grain hardness in the negative range (0 to —45 Inframatic 8611 units). Within advanced winter triticale breeding lines high positive correlation between grain hardness and minimally processed grouts extraction was observed. In spite of low grain hardness among winter triticale breeding lines samples with high grouts extractions (up to 89 %) were isolated. Grain hardness also showed high positive correlation with bread-making characteristics and sedimentation SDS-30A index of wheat flour. Strong positive influence of gene Gpc-B1 as well as high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits Glu-A1x2* and Glu-D1x5 extra-expression on grain hardness, grain protein content and its quality were observed. Grout extraction of wheat samples with different grain color such as red, white, black and blue were evaluated. On the base of data obtained the new breeding strategy of wheat and triticale for grouts/flakes end-use was proposed and discussed.
Keywords: wheat, triticale, breeding, grain hardness, bread-making, protein content, grain color, grouts
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